Chapter 31 — List of puzzles solved by the TYCHOS

Chapter 31: List of puzzles solved by the TYCHOS

It is a common misconception that the heliocentric model, as envisioned by Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo back in the 16th and 17th centuries and still staunchly defended by establishment astronomers, has by now been fully confirmed as the correct configuration of the Solar System. However, heliocentric physics and geometry are afflicted by recalcitrant inconsistencies and ‘enigmas’ which remain unsolved to this day, though rarely mentioned outside specialized circles. In fact, when questioned about it, most earnest astronomers and cosmologists will openly admit that many important empirical observations lack a minimally satisfactory explanation.

The TYCHOS model differs from the Copernican model in numerous important aspects, which confer on it a vastly greater explanatory power. The most important of these aspects is the local, barycentric orbit of the Earth, in this book referred to as the ‘PVP orbit’ in reference to the periodic shift in pole stars which occurs along the Great Year.

In this final chapter, we will review and summarize the main secular astronomical issues and puzzles resolved by the TYCHOS model as of the time of writing. If you have enjoyed exploring this book and think it deserves to be considered seriously and shared with laymen and experts alike, the checklist below may come in handy. Having come this far in the book, you will know that each item on the list has been exhaustively cross-verified with observational data produced over the centuries by renowned and committed astronomers.

1 • Our Sun has a binary companion

Some find the notion of a binary companion of the Sun highly exotic, but it would actually be far more sensible to ask why our Sun would lack a binary companion. We know today that the vast majority (quite possibly all) of the visible stars in our skies have local orbits intersecting with the orbits of one or more smaller companions around a common barycenter. The notion that the Sun is a rare exception to the rule—perhaps even the only exception—should set off alarm bells in the mind of any rational person. The TYCHOS model does away with this glaring aberration and exhaustively substantiates that Mars is the obvious binary companion of the Sun and that it regularly transits in the middle of Earth’s PVP orbit. The latter explains and accounts for the Earth’s ‘clockwise’ equinoctial precession in the simplest manner imaginable (Chapter 2).

2 • Only Mercury and Venus have no moons

As stated in the Wikipedia entry on natural satellites, no moon is known to have subsatellites. In the TYCHOS model, Mercury and Venus are moonless simply because they are the moons of the Sun, not planets. This should come as no surprise: Mercury and Venus rotate around their axes at ‘walking pace’ (5.465 km/h and 2.711 km/h, respectively), similarly to our Moon (16.65 km/h) and completely unlike planets (for example, Jupiter and Saturn rotate at 43000 km/h and 37000 km/h, respectively). Moreover, Mercury and Venus are tidally locked to the Sun, just like our Moon is tidally locked to Earth. That such a striking contrast between the Mercury/Venus pair and our planets could have gone unnoticed or remained undebated to this day is a mystery in itself (Chapter 3).

3 • Mars and the Sun exhibit 79-year cycles locked at a 2:1 ratio

Under the Copernican model, this little-known fact would have to be classified as a coincidence of the most implausible kind. Under the TYCHOS paradigm however, Mars and the Sun are binary companions and move in intersecting orbits. Therefore, a long-term resonance between their cycles is expected and perfectly coherent (Chapters 5 and 9).

4 • Planetary retrograde motions contradict the laws of perspective

Heliocentrists’ explanation for our planets’ periodic and irregular retrograde motions, a phenomenon that has puzzled astronomers for millennia, is directly contradicted by the most basic laws of perspective: if retrograde motions were caused by speed differentials between Earth and the other planets, producing a parallax effect, then the amount of a planet’s retrograde motion in relation to the firmament should be greater the closer to Earth it is. Instead, the exact opposite is observed. The TYCHOS solves the enigma of retrograde motions through geometrically rigorous and empirically supported demonstrations of the dynamics of trochoidal loops (Chapters 5 and 29).

5 • Sirius A and Sirius B are proportionally identical to the Sun and Mars

This issue is more important than it might seem at first glance, and to offhandedly dismiss it as happenstance is not an acceptable argument in reasoned scientific discourse. In terms of size, the proportion between the Sun and Mars is practically identical to the proportion between Sirius A and Sirius B. Moreover, Sirius A-B is arguably a ‘companion system’ to our own Solar System. The idea is not new: over the last decades, it has been put forth by several independent research groups, supported by a host of compelling facts. The TYCHOS model makes it possible to reasonably envision the two binary systems (Sun-Mars and Sirius A-B) as a ‘double-double’ system, of which there are other well-documented examples in the universe. In such systems, the two pairs slowly revolve around each other over very extended periods (Chapter 6).

6 • Mars can line up with the same star in only 546 days

If you choose a star to align with Mars, on 7 successive occasions the alignment will occur after 707 days on average, but the 8th time around it takes only about 546 days. In the Copernican model, Earth is believed to be displaced laterally by about 300 million km in this same period and still align perfectly with Mars and the chosen star, a patently absurd contention which is explained away by invoking the notion of ‘unimaginable remoteness’. In the TYCHOS model, this 707/546-day variation in periodicity is the natural result of the peculiar trochoidal motion of Mars, as viewed from Earth (Chapter 7).

7 • Venus appears to rotate clockwise around its axis

In reality, Venus rotates counterclockwise, just like all the other components of our Solar System. The illusion of its apparent clockwise (or ‘retrograde’) rotation is upheld by the erroneous notion that Earth rotates around it in the course of its 1.6-year (584.4-day) synodic period. This is another case of confusion induced by the heliocentric frame of reference (Chapter 8).

8 • The orbits of Venus and Mercury are co-planar with the Sun’s equatorial ecliptic

The Sun’s polar axis is inclined at about 6° or 7° with respect to our ecliptic plane. This is a still unresolved enigma of astrophysics. The orbits of Venus and Mercury display the same inclination, a fact which can be verified in the Tychosium 3D simulator. This constitutes a very strong case for the notion that Venus and Mercury are the moons of the Sun, not planets (Chapter 9).

9 • The 7° axial tilt of the Sun, Mars, the Moon, and the Sirius system

The TYCHOS model provides a basis for the notion that this peculiar 7° obliquity, as seen from the Earth, is shared by components of our system and the Sirius binary system due to the ‘double-double’ binary configuration of the two systems (Chapters 6, 9 and 20).

10 • The Precession of the Equinoxes and the alternating north stars

The Precession of the Equinoxes (or ‘General Precession’) is the observed annual eastward drift of the entire firmament, as observed and documented since Antiquity. To explain the phenomenon, heliocentrists have resorted to the nonsensical lunisolar hypothesis which has the Earth ‘wobbling’ in the opposite direction of its axial rotation. No credible mechanism has been proposed for such an unphysical motion and recent research has roundly disproved it, leaving Copernican astronomy without a shred of explanation for this massively important phenomenon. In the TYCHOS model, the Precession of the Equinoxes is simply the optical effect of the Earth’s snail-paced clockwise motion around the PVP orbit. During a complete 25344-year orbit, this motion causes the pole star to change from Polaris to Vega, and back to Polaris, hence the name ‘PVP’ (Chapter 11).

11 • The solar day is longer than the sidereal day but the solar year is shorter than the sidereal year

This well-known and empirically verifiable fact has still not been explained convincingly by Copernican astronomers. However, the conundrum is easily resolved by the TYCHOS, using simple math and geometry (Chapter 12).

12 • The Moon appears to be the ‘central driveshaft’ of the Solar System

Our Moon’s 29.22-day true mean synodic period (TMSP) is reflected in almost exact integer multiples by all the components of our system. This would seem utterly mysterious under the heliocentric configuration. If the Moon were just one of many satellites revolving around the various planets in our system, why would its orbital period be harmonized with the orbital periods of all the planets? In the TYCHOS, all this becomes a far less mysterious affair: the Moon revolves around the Earth, near the barycenter of our Sun-Mars binary system. This places the Moon in a privileged central position, although the ‘driveshaft mechanics’ involved remains unexplored (Chapters 13 and 16).

13 • Our Moon lines up with the same star every 27.3 days

The heliocentric model has the Earth-Moon system hurtling around the Sun at the insane speed of 107226 km/h, allegedly covering a 70 million-km orbital section every 27.3 days. Yet, the Moon is inexplicably observed to reconjunct with any given star every 27.3 days. In the TYCHOS, there is no such riddle: the Earth-Moon system moves at ‘snail pace’ along the PVP orbit, covering a mere 1049 km every 27.3 days. Remarkably, 27.3 days (the so-called ‘Carrington number’) is also the time employed by the Sun to rotate around its own axis (Chapter 13).

14 • The Moon’s oscillating perigees and apogees

The Moon oscillates from perigee to perigee (as it transits closest to Earth) by about 14036 km, and from perigee to apogee (as it transits furthest from Earth) by 42108 km (3 x 14036 km). These distances reflect Earth’s annual motion (EAM) of 14036 km along the PVP orbit, thus providing spectacular support to the TYCHOS model’s proposed orbital speed of the Earth. Moreover, while Copernican astonomers remain clueless, the TYCHOS fully explains the existence of the Moon’s puzzling exeligmos cycle of 54.1 years (or 3 saros cycles of 18.03 years), corresponding to the time needed for the Earth-Moon system to cover a distance equal to the Moon’s orbital diameter (Chapter 13).

15 • The Moon appears to accelerate in relation to the Earth

This acceleration is an optic illusion which has long deceived mainstream astronomers due to their erroneous heliocentric perspective. In the TYCHOS model, the phenomenon is a fully expected corollary of the Earth-Moon system’s ‘snail-paced’ motion around the PVP orbit (Chapter 14).

16 • The largest meteor showers recur at regular annual intervals

The currently favored explanation for recurring meteor showers is that they are caused by our planet crossing through dust trails left behind by various comets, every year at specific dates and locations, despite the fact that no comet is known to return on a yearly basis. The TYCHOS submits a much more rational and demonstrable explanation: the annual recurrences of large meteor showers coincide with the regularly intersecting orbital paths of the Sun and Mars (Chapter 15).

17 • The 405-kyr cycle

As shown in the Tychosium 3D simulator, all the ‘inner’ bodies of the Solar System (Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Sun), with the exception of our Moon, are governed by a distinct and very stable 405500-year cycle, also identified by geologists, which makes them return to virtually the same place (ephemeris) in the sky by the end of this period. After two such cycles (405500 x 2 = 811000 years), the ‘inner’ bodies will obviously return to the same position, but this time around they will be joined by the Moon. The 811000-year mega cycle may also be the time required by our Solar System and the Sirius system to revolve around each other (Chapters 16 and 20).

18 • The conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn appear to be unequal or ‘chaotic’

Hotly debated at the end of the 19th century, the ‘Great Inequality’ is the observed fluctuation of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s conjunctions. According to Newton’s laws, this fluctuation would have Jupiter eventually crashing into the Sun, while Saturn would be driven away into the depths of space. The puzzle was never truly solved, despite the abstruse and convoluted claims to the contrary and all the fear it engendered. The TYCHOS, however, reveals that these apparently irregular Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions are a perfectly natural consequence of Earth’s motion around its PVP orbit, and that our planets are not falling out of their regular orbits anytime soon (Chapter 17).

19 • The orbital periods of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto support the TYCHOS model’s tenets

The TYCHOS can demonstrate that the orbital periods of all the components of the Solar System are multiples of the Moon’s synodic period, and therefore also exact multiples of the Sun’s 1-year orbital period. The orbital periods of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto may appear to be exceptions because their respective periods are slighter shorter than integer years, but the difference disappears when the periods are adjusted for the optical effect of Earth’s progression along its PVP orbit (Chapter 18).

20 • The equinoctial precession appears to increase exponentially

The TYCHOS model provides a plain geometric explanation for this age-old, unresolved mystery. The rate of precessional increase is exponential because it is caused by two separate, cumulative components: the east-to-west lateral displacement of the Earth in relation to the stars, and the east-to-west secular rotation of Earth’s equinox in relation to the stars (Chapter 19).

21 • Mars’ officially reckoned ‘great cycle’

Since the orbits of the Sun and Mars are ‘locked’ in a 2:1 ratio, it is to be fully expected that the ‘Great Year of Mars’ (50688 solar years) would have twice the duration of the ‘TYCHOS Great Year’ of 25344 solar years (Chapter 19).

22 • Earth’s rotation is believed to decelerate

Unaware of Earth’s motion around its PVP orbit, heliocentrists are under the impression that Earth’s rotation is decelerating. The TYCHOS can readily demonstrate, both geometrically and mathematically, that this is not the case. Using the wrong model of the Solar System inevitably leads to confusion and faulty conclusions (Chapter 19).

23 • The 811000-year ‘mega cycle’

It is officially estimated that the last reversal of the Earth’s magnetic poles occurred roughly 800 thousand years ago. The TYCHOS model submits that this event may be related to the ‘mega cycle’, i.e., the time employed by the Solar System and the Sirius system to revolve around each other (811000 years) (Chapter 20).

24 • The enormous disparity between the pole reversals of the Sun and the Earth

The Sun’s magnetic pole reversals occur every 11.5 years on average, whereas the last reversal of the Earth’s poles is estimated to have occurred about 781000 years ago. As viewed under the TYCHOS paradigm, this would seem to suggest that the polar reversals of the Sun and the Earth are commensurate with their respective orbital speeds: 107226 km/h and 1.6 km/h (Chapter 20).

25 • The analemma and the need for the ‘Equation of Time’

The asymmetric 8-shaped analemma traced by the Sun is caused by the trochoidal path traveled by the earthly observer during a full year. In the TYCHOS, this is referred to as ‘a man’s yearly path’. This motion required the adoption of the ‘Equation of Time’ to make earthly time-keeping feasible. The analemma may be viewed as a ‘speedometer’ since it can be shown to reflect our planet’s orbital velocity of 1.6 km/h. Moreover, it directly falsifies the heliocentric explanation of the apparent solar (or earthly) accelerations and decelerations around the solstices. It makes no sense that the Earth would ‘speed up’ between June and July, when it is furthest from the Sun. Kepler’s ‘laws’ of planetary motion, which stipulate that Earth should decelerate as it transits farthest from the Sun, are thus disproven by observation (Chapter 21).

26 • The mysterious 137 number

In the TYCHOS model, for every diurnal rotation of the Earth, the Sun moves by a distance corresponding to 1/137 of the circumference of the Earth’s PVP orbit. Physicists call this peculiar 1:137 ratio the ‘fine-structure constant alpha’ and many think it pervades the entire structure of our universe, at both micro and macro level. As a mere speculation, one could envision the Sun as playing the role of the ‘electron’ as it orbits around the ‘nucleus’ represented by the central magnetic field delineated by Earth’s PVP orbit. Moreover, the observed minuscule variation of alpha is compatible with the daily motion of the Earth (Chapter 21).

27 • ‘Stellar aberration’ as ‘ultimate proof’ of Earth’s revolution around the Sun

Though long falsified by ‘Airy’s failure’, Bradley’s theory of ‘stellar aberration’ is still regarded as ‘proof’ of Earth’s revolution around the Sun. The TYCHOS demonstrates that Bradley’s abstruse theory was accepted simply because the observed ‘looping’ motions of the stars were incompatible with the heliocentric paradigm. The appearance of looping motions is the result of the trochoidal path around which earthly observers revolve annually (Chapter 22).

28 • The purportedly anomalous precession of Mercury’s perihelion

This non-existent anomaly in Mercury’s perihelion was ‘resolved’ by Einstein with his Theory of General Relativity, making him a world celebrity overnight. However, the TYCHOS model shows that the seeming 43″ annual discrepancy in Mercury’s perihelion is the corollary of falsely assuming that the Earth revolves around Mercury. Once the heliocentric model is replaced with the TYCHOS model, which has Mercury revolving around Earth, the purported anomaly simply disappears. There could be no simpler falsification of Einstein’s theory (Chapter 22).

29 • Remote stars are clearly visible to the naked eye

Copernican astronomers estimate the distance to the stars based on what they believe to be Earth’s lateral displacement over a period of six months orbiting the Sun (~300 million km). In the TYCHOS, however, the Earth does not orbit the Sun and only moves laterally by 7018 km in this same period. The ratio between these two parameters is 42633:1, meaning that the stars are many thousand times closer to us than the absurdly inflated official estimates. This is a quite plausible scenario, considering the ease with which stars ‘thousands of light years’ away can be seen. For example, Sirius and Jupiter subtend roughly the same angular diameter in the sky, but the former is believed to be 88000 times more remote than the latter. If this were true, Sirius would have to be 8834 times larger than our Sun. Likewise, we are expected to believe that the actual angular diameter of Vega, a first-magnitude star, is 622000 times smaller than the Sun’s—instead of 16 times smaller, as reckoned by Tycho Brahe—due to atmospheric distorsions which would affect the stars only. (Chapter 23).

30 • The perceived speed of our Solar System in relation to the stars

Our entire Solar System is estimated to move at approximately 19.4 km/s in relation to the stars (or vice versa). Once more, the TYCHOS has a plain and simple explanation for this generally accepted parameter: 19.4 km/s is tantamount to 69840 km/h; if we divide 69840 by 42633 (the TYCHOS ‘reduction factor’), we obtain 1.638 km/h—almost exactly the orbital speed of Earth proposed by the TYCHOS. In fact, the evidence available from observational data is overwhelmingly supportive of Earth’s 1.6 km/h orbital motion (Chapter 23).

31 • The Michelson-Morley experiments

The numerous interferometer experiments attempting to detect the supposed hypersonic motion of Earth are said to have produced ‘null results’ or to have failed entirely, thus confirming Einstein’s theories. However, on closer scrutiny, the velocities recorded by most of these experiments (especially those of Dayton Miller), though small, are certainly not ‘null’ and actually support Earth’s 1.6 km/h orbital speed, as proposed by the TYCHOS. Moreover, Michelson is even quoted as saying that he thought of the possibility that the Solar System as a whole might have moved in the opposite direction of the Earth. This is, of course, precisely what happens in the TYCHOS model, as Earth slowly revolves in the opposite direction of all of the other components of the system (Chapter 24).

32 • The existence of negative and zero stellar parallax

If our planet were orbiting the Sun, as Copernicans claim, the parallax between nearby stars and remote stars would invariably be positive. Negative parallax would occur only if the Earth reversed direction, something no sane person has ever proposed. The problem is that only 25% of observed stellar parallaxes are positive, while 25% are negative and 50% are zero. This incontrovertible and highly ‘Copernicidal’ fact is perfectly compatible with the TYCHOS model’s geometry. Note that the TYCHOS model does not negate the vast amount of stellar parallax data gathered to this day; on the contrary, it provides—for the first time in the history of astronomy—a perfectly logical explanation for its observed distribution into positive, negative and zero values (Chapter 25).

33 • The stars appear to be moving in two opposite streams

Based on painstaking observation, star statistician Jacobus Kapteyn put forth the remarkable thesis (now largely forgotten) that the stars can be segregated into two ‘streams’, moving in opposite directions. Likewise, French astronomer Ernest Esclangon detected a minute ‘dissymmetry of space’, but only during a semi-diurnal period (12 hours). Kapteyn’s and Esclangon’s puzzling findings actually support the TYCHOS model’s tenets: as our planet moves along the PVP orbit at an almost imperceptible speed and curvature, the closest stars to our ‘right’ and the closest stars to our ‘left’ will exhibit opposite (positive vs negative) parallaxes in relation to the more distant ‘fixed stars’. On the other hand, stars ‘behind’ and ‘in front of’ the Earth are not visually affected by our planet’s motion, corresponding to the other, semi-diurnal period for which no dissymmetry is observed (Chapter 26).

34 • The fallacy of elliptical planetary orbits and variable orbital speeds

Kepler himself admitted his theories of elliptical orbits and variable speeds could not be derived from observational data. They were simply mathematical devices necessary to make the heliocentric model ‘work’ and compensate for the optical illusion of dissymmetry. In the TYCHOS, all celestial bodies move in circular orbits and at constant speeds. Since they all revolve directly or indirectly around a barycenter occupied by Earth’s PVP orbit, they will alternately find themselves on either side of our planet, giving rise to the hypothesis of elliptical orbits and variable speeds. Moreover, Kepler’s and Newton’s theories are mutually contradictory, a fact that has been largely ignored (Chapter 26).

35 • The angular momentum problem

On the false assumption that the Sun needs 240 million years to complete a single orbit, heliocentrists estimate its angular momentum to be 0.3% of the total angular momentum of the Solar System. This is an embarrassing situation for them since it completely violates Newtonian physics. However, in the TYCHOS, the Sun has a local orbit of 365.25 days and a full cycle of 25344 years. When these parameters are used in the equation, the observed angular momentum of the Sun is within the limits of plausibility (Chapter 27).

36 • The peculiar motions of Barnard’s star

Barnard’s star, the fastest-moving star in the firmament, displays a peculiar 4-month/8-month lateral oscillation in its apparent trajectory. The TYCHOS shows that, depending on a star’s location, the annual trochoidal path travelled by any earthly observer (‘a man’s yearly path’) will produce an illusory zig-zag pattern. No fanciful astrophysical theory is needed to explain what is merely the result of the peculiar trochoidal gyration of our terrestrial frame of reference (Chapter 28).

37 • The minuscule retrograde periods of Eros

Under the heliocentric model, retrograde motions are said to be the result of Earth “overtaking” its fellow planets. Within this rationale, the closer the overtaken body is, the more it should be seen to retrograde. However, the retrograde period of the asteroid Eros, which passes much closer to Earth than Mars or Venus, is so short it is barely perceptible. In the TYCHOS model, no such contradiction exists: Eros has a miniscule retrograde period due to its peculiar heart-shaped trochoidal orbital pattern (Chapter 29).

38 • Cigar-shaped cometary orbits

It was Isaac Newton who fathered the theory of extremely elongated elliptical cometary orbits, based on a case of mistaken identity: in 1680, Eros made a close approach to Earth shortly before the appearance of Halley’s comet in another area of the sky. Newton thought they were the same object making a sharp U-turn, leading him to envision the orbit as cigar-shaped. Unfortunately, astronomers have been holding on to this unphysical notion ever since. Comets and asteroids are roughly of the same size and obey the same laws of motion, meaning that both have uniformly circular orbits and move at constant speeds. The TYCHOS provides unassailable evidence of this (Chapter 30).

39 • The ‘chaotic’ periodicity of Halley’s comet

Mainstream astronomers believe Halley’s comet behaves ‘chaotically’, returning at intervals between 73 and 79 years, and dream up fantastical gravitational and non-gravitational forces to justify it. The Tychosium 3D simulator shows instead that Halley’s comet has a regular period of 75.7 years, but becomes visible on multiple occasions during each transit, deluding comet hunters and leading them to rebaptize it many times over. The simulator sheds light on the passages of comet Halley over the past two millennia—and on the numerous misidentified ‘coincidental comets’ which have unfailingly appeared in adjacent years of our most famous comet’s nearmost transits. Even hard-core skeptics will want to reconsider their ‘cosmo-logical’ beliefs after examining the extensive evidence provided by the TYCHOS, based on the vast body of literature and observational records related to Halley’s comet (Chapter 30).

40 • We can’t feel the Earth rotating or orbiting

The orthodox explanation as to why we cannot sense the Earth’s axial rotation is quite correct: the Earth rotates at a constant speed and its rate of rotation is a mere 0.0007 rpm, which is far too little to produce a perceptible centrifugal force. On the other hand, the heliocentric claim that the Earth is hurtling around the Sun at the breakneck speed of 107226 km/h (90 times the speed of sound) has no scientific or experimental foundation whatsoever. As proposed by the TYCHOS model, our actual barycentric orbital speed is only 1.6 km/h, which is comfortably below the threshold of human sensory perception (Chapter 24).

41 • “Dark matter” and “dark energy” are entirely spurious concepts

It is an undeniable fact that current astrophysical theories are stuck in an intractable crisis, spawned by the idea that the stars are formidably distant. Modern observations of our surrounding ‘galaxies’ (more likely particularly large and densely-populated binary systems) have shown that the orbital velocities of their various components would be formidably—and quite abnormally—fast; that is, as viewed under the ‘sacred Newtonian and Einsteinian laws’. Since the latter would require much more mass to justify these humongous velocities, astrophysicists have come up with the idea that some sort of invisible “dark matter” (that somehow only affects those distant galaxies yet not our own) is responsible for these ‘inexplicable’ orbital velocities. In the TYCHOS model, of course, the stars are 42633 times closer than currently believed. Hence, the orbital velocities observed in distant ‘galaxies’ (as interpreted by heliocentric astronomers) are grossly inflated.

All the astronomical puzzles and quandaries listed above find sensible and forthright answers when assessed within the TYCHOS paradigm and its proposed 1.6 km/h motion of Earth around its PVP orbit. In light of this, the TYCHOS model stands on solid ground, whereas Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo’s heliocentric paradigm emerges as utterly untenable. It is often and correctly affirmed that a modern scientific theory must by definition be falsifiable, meaning that it must specify the type of empirical test or evidence required to refute it. I believe to have met the criteria to roundly disprove the heliocentric model—and I am certainly not the first person to do so—so I now pass on the buck to the world’s scientific community in the hope they will apply the same objective principles and honesty to the task of trying to falsify the TYCHOS model’s tenets and impugn my interpretation of the vast volume of astronomical observations incorporated into the argumentation of this book. I believe to have duly observed an objective and respectful approach to the rigorous and indefatigable efforts of others; it would therefore seem fair that the contents of this book be granted a similarly careful appraisal and scientific inquiry.