Chapters
Chapter 6 — Is Sirius the twin of our Solar System?

Chapter 6: Is Sirius the "twin" of our Solar System?

6.1 About Sirius A and Sirius B

One of the primary objections submitted by opponents of the TYCHOS model is that Mars is far too small to be our Sun’s binary companion. They argue that this would gravely violate Isaac Newton’s gravitational laws and that Mars, being such a small body, would immediately crash into the Sun. As we shall presently see, this argument is directly contradicted by the very existence of the Sirius binary system, which is composed of one large star (Sirius A) and one very small companion star (Sirius B). Remarkably enough, Sirius A and B are in the same proportion to each other as the Sun and Mars.

Fig.6.1

It is a matter of historical record that astronomers were totally stumped when the first binary star systems were discovered. The extremely small size of some of these newly detected companion stars—which kept multiplying thanks to improvements in telescopes and spectroscopes—made no sense within the framework of Newton’s theories. For instance, following the discovery of the tiny Sirius B, here is what Sir Arthur Eddington, renowned Astronomer Royal, had to say:

"We learn about the stars by receiving and interpreting the messages which their light brings to us. The message of the Companion of Sirius when it was decoded ran: 'I am composed of material 3,000 times denser than anything you have ever come across; a ton of my material would be a little nugget that you could put in a matchbox.' What reply can one make to such a message? The reply which most of us made in 1914 was — "Shut up. Don't talk nonsense."(Sir Arthur Eddington) "White Darf" - Wikipedia (opens in a new tab)

Indeed, as these small binary companions were discovered, Newton’s sacrosanct gravitational laws were in grave danger of catastrophic demise. Eventually though, the situation was circumvented in what must be one of the most egregious cases of outright chicanery in science history. The ad hoc solution to the Newtonian pickle was to affirm that tiny companion stars were necessarily made of extraordinarily dense matter. And, in fact, astronomy students are taught today that an object the size of a sugar cube would weigh some 1000 kg on Sirius B because the gravitational pull is for unknown reasons 400 000 times greater there than on Earth! That’s right, we are told that, in spite of having a slightly smaller diameter than Earth, Sirius B is heavier than our Sun because its atoms are packed almost half a million times tighter than our earthly atoms. I trust any intellectually honest person can see this is nothing but a maneuver to preserve the prestige of Sir Isaac Newton—one of our scientific community’s most cherished icons.

Sirius, the brightest star in our skies, is a ‘classic’ binary system composed of at least two known bodies, Sirius A and Sirius B, which revolve around a common barycenter in intersecting orbits. The tiny companion star, Sirius B, was discovered by Alvan Clark in 1862 with what was then the world’s largest refractor telescope. As we shall see further on, a third body (Sirius C) is now suspected to be part of the Sirius system, despite being invisible even to our largest telescopes. But let us begin by taking a look at the two visible and well-known bodies of the Sirius binary system.

This is the first photograph of SIRIUS A and Sirius B (by Lindenblad — 1973):

Fig. 6.2 (a)

Here is how some astronomy websites illustrate the orbits of SIRIUS A and Sirius B. The two bodies are presumed to orbit around nothing at all - or rather, around their common "center of mass" (or barycenter):

Fig. 6.2 (b)

It should be noted that Sirius B is believed to be a so-called white dwarf. In Chapter 3, we saw that Mars to some extent fits the description of a red (or brown) dwarf. According to cosmologists, the only difference between a white dwarf and a red dwarf is their age, red dwarfs being much older.

Fig. 6.3

Let us now address the first and most frequent objection to the TYCHOS model, namely that Mars is way too small to be the Sun’s binary companion. This objection actually stands on very thin ground since it is invalidated by the empirically observable fact that the diameters of Sirius A and Sirius B are proportionally identical to those of the Sun and Mars.

Note that we will only be comparing the observed, relative angular diameters of Sirius A and Sirius B since any claim as to their respective masses would be impossible to verify empirically from Earth. In fact, all mass estimates of distant celestial bodies have to this day been based upon Einstein’s and Newton’s postulations which in later decades have been seriously questioned, if not roundly falsified. Yet, most astrophysicists seem to be comfortable with the notion that the ‘midget star’ Sirius B must have a larger mass than that of our Sun. Wikimedia and Wikipedia make the following extraordinary claims:

"The white dwarf, Sirius B, has a mass equal to the mass of the Sun packed into a diameter that is 90% that of the Earth. The gravity on the surface of Sirius B is 400,000 times that of Earth!" "Sirius A and B - A Double-Star System" / Wikimedia (opens in a new tab)

“In 2005, using the Hubble telescope, astronomers determined that Sirius B has nearly the diameter of the Earth, 12,000 kilometres, with a mass 102% of the Sun’s.” "Sirius" / Wikipedia (opens in a new tab)

Astronomers essentially believe that since Newton’s gravitational laws so elegantly predict the masses of the components our system, the same laws may safely be applied to the entire universe. Thus, if a large star and a tiny star can revolve around each other in a binary system, the mass of the tiny star must, they think, be phenomenally large.

I trust anyone can sense the fallacy inherent in this reasoning. It is really nothing but a textbook case of ad hoc confirmation bias on part of our world’s astrophysicists. So for now let us skip the abstract question of the unmeasurable masses of distant celestial bodies and focus on the readily measurable relative diameters of the Sun and Mars, and contrast them directly with those of Sirius A and B, as estimated by Copernican astronomers.

Diameter of Sirius A: 2 390 000 km

Diameter of Sirius B: 11 684.4 km

Sirius B’s diameter is 0.4888% that of Sirius A.

Diameter of the Sun: 1 392 000 km

Diameter of Mars: 6 792.4 km

Mars’s diameter is 0.488% that of the Sun.

This corresponds to a proportional difference of barely 0.0008%.

Put differently:

  • Sirius A is about 205 times larger than Sirius B.

  • The Sun is about 205 times larger than Mars.

Thus, since the two companion stars in the Sirius system are practically in the same proportion to each other as the Sun and Mars, the objection that Mars would be far too small a binary companion is a non-starter; the very existence of the Sirius binary system constitutes empirical evidence that such an allegedly unbalanced system can and does indeed exist in our cosmos. No truly scientific mind would dismiss this as mere coincidence unworthy of serious consideration and debate. In any event, this directly observable fact certainly lends support the TYCHOS model’s main contention, namely that the Sun and the midget Mars are binary companions, much like Sirius A and the midget Sirius B are empirically observed to be, as they revolve around each other in about 50 solar years.

Fig. 6.4 These pictures are based on a Wikipedia image captioned: “Image of Sirius A and Sirius B taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Sirius B, which is a white dwarf, can be seen as a faint point of light to the lower left of the much brighter Sirius A.” I have added a blue dot (Sirius C?) which will be explained shortly. My composited image on the right suggests what our own system might look like if viewed from Sirius.

Surely, it would be extremely difficult or outright impossible to see Earth from Sirius as it would be swamped by the Sun’s blinding glare. Conversely, the same would be true for any earthly observer attempting to detect the elusive ‘Sirius C’ amidst the blinding glare of Sirius A. But how did this ‘Sirius C’ get into the picture?

6.2 About the possible existence of ‘Sirius C’

As it is, there may be even more astonishing similarities between the Sirius binary system and our own binary system. Although further studies are needed to confirm its existence, it would appear that the Sirius binary system may well harbor a third body—provisionally named ‘Sirius C’. We shall now take a look at what is currently known about this controversial third component of the Sirius system, along with its most fascinating implications for the TYCHOS model.

A fairly recent (1994) French astrophysical study concluded there are fairly solid indications for the existence of a third body in the Sirius system. Figure 6.5 provides an extract, but the paper is well worth reading in its entirety. "Is Sirius a Triple Star?" (opens in a new tab) by D. Benest and J.L. Duvent (1994)

Fig. 6.5

The study essentially concludes that ‘Sirius C’ may well exist (though visually swamped by the glare of Sirius A), that it would have a far smaller mass than its two confirmed binary companions, and that its ‘host star’ would most likely be Sirius A, and not the midget star Sirius B. But before proceeding, let us look at a conventional diagram illustrating the intersecting orbits of Sirius A and Sirius B as they are viewed from Earth. Note that in Figure 6.6 Sirius B is labeled a ‘carbon star’, bringing to mind the fact that 96% of Mars’ atmosphere is reputedly composed of carbon dioxide.

Fig. 6.6 Source:https://tinyurl.com/siriussystemASTRONOMOS (opens in a new tab)

According to modern astronomers, Sirius A and Sirius B revolve in intersecting orbits around a barycenter located in the void of space. But if we grant the existence of a third component in the Sirius system, such a body might just be located in the middle of Sirius A’s orbit. Figure 6.6 shows how such an arrangement would compare to the Sun-Mars binary system, as proposed by the TYCHOS model.

Fig. 6.7 Is the Sirius A/B binary system the ‘twin’ of the Sun/Mars binary system?

Perhaps the most exciting implication of the configuration shown in Figure 6.6 is the similar distance ratio between the small binary companion and the central body of either system. Thus, we know the distance between Mars and Earth (from perigee to apogee) varies by a 1:7 ratio. Assuming ‘Sirius C’ exists and is located in the middle of Sirius A’s orbit, the exact same 1:7 ratio would apply to the distance between Sirius B and Sirius C. If this is really so—and we are just speculating here—‘Sirius C’ would be like a ‘twin’ to Earth.

6.3 The 7-degree tilt of Mars, the Sun and the Sirius system

As will be expounded in more detail in Chapter 9, our Sun’s axis is observed to be tilted at about 6 or 7 degrees in relation to the ecliptic. This is yet another ‘mystery’ never explained by Copernican astronomers. Why would the Sun be tilted in relation to our system’s planets? Isn’t the Sun supposed to be the central, dominating mass of our system? And shouldn’t all the planets therefore revolve around the Sun’s equatorial plane?

Most interestingly, Mars’ axis can also be observed to be tilted at about 7 degrees. This could be seen in July 2018 when Mars passed very close to Earth. On that date, Mars was also ‘in opposition to’ (i.e., ‘facing’) the Sirius system. Now, as viewed from Earth, the Sirius system also has a 7-degree tilt component, as shown in Figure 6.8. Unless this is all coincidental, it would seem to suggest that the axes of the Sun and Mars are tilted ‘in sympathy’ with the entire Sirius system, at approximately 7 degrees.

Fig. 6.8 Mars, the Sun and the Sirius system as viewed from Earth. All appear to be tilted at about 7 degrees. Source of the sequential Mars images of its 2018 transit: Agena observing guide (opens in a new tab)

As you may know, Mars’ axis is also tilted at about 25 degrees, but in the other direction. This is why Mars will alternately show us its north pole and its south pole every 8.5 years or so, as it transits on either side of the Earth. Strangely, to my knowledge no mention of Mars’ other and lesser-known 7-degree axial tilt is to be found in the astronomy literature, in spite of the ongoing debate on the Sun’s 6 or 7-degree axial tilt (which some authors claim is caused by a hypothetical invisible body to which they have given the name ‘Planet Nine’).

What about our Moon? Does it also have an axial tilt? Yes, indeed. Here’s what we may read on the Wikipedia:

"The Moon's axis of rotation is inclined by in total 6.7° relative to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. This leads to a similar perspective effect in the north–south direction that is referred to as optical libration in latitude, which allows one to see almost 7° of latitude beyond the pole on the far side." "Orbit of the Moon" - Wikipedia (opens in a new tab)

Remarkable, isn't it?

6.4 The Dogon tribe’s curious knowledge of Sirius

‘Emme Tolo’ is the name given to the elusive Sirius C by the Dogon people, an ancient African tribe that worshipped the brightest star in our skies. In fact, it still remains a veritable mystery how the Dogons even knew of the existence of the tiny Sirius B, since it is not visible without a telescope, except perhaps under exceptional circumstances.

Fig. 6.9 "The Dogons and the Stars of Sirius" (opens in a new tab) by Pacal Votan (2007)

Figure 6.9 can be found on various ‘alternative’ websites. It depicts a proposed configuration of the Sirius system. Interestingly, it appears to feature the elusive ‘Sirius C’ (or Emme Tolo) positioned at the barycenter of the Sirius A/B binary system.

The Dogons somehow also knew about an even smaller body revolving in lunar fashion around Emme Tolo (or ‘Sirius C’), much like our Moon revolves around Earth. They named this satellite ‘Nyan Tolo’ which translates as ‘the women’s star’. Of course, our Moon (la Luna in Italian, and in Greek mythology represented by the goddess Selene) has always been regarded as ‘the women’s orb’, what with its sidereal orbital period of 27.3 days, approximately matching the average female menstrual cycle.

What are we to make of this remarkable story? As unlikely and bizarre as it may sound, it seems equally unlikely to be just a figment of someone’s imagination. Whether or not one labels it a product of mythology and folklore will not change the observable fact: Sirius B does indeed exist, and the existence of ‘Sirius C’ is by no means an unreasonable hypothesis. Should it eventually turn out that both ‘Sirius C’ (‘Emme Tolo’) and its moon (‘Nyan Tolo’) exist, we will have to seriously consider the compelling possibility that the Sirius system is like a ‘twin family’ to our own system.

OBJECTTWIN
SunSirius A
MarsSirius B
EarthSirius C
Moon"Nyan Tolo"

Fig. 6.10 Could the main components of our Solar System be “twins” of the Sirius System’s components?

As we saw in Chapter 5, critics of the TYCHOS model think it preposterous to cast Mars in the role of the Sun’s binary companion, based on the allegedly highly unequal masses of these two bodies. I think it is time to question whether the assumed masses of the distant stars and planets have any foundation in reality. To be sure, no one will ever be able to weigh celestial bodies directly. Besides, Mars may be 205 times smaller than the Sun, but it is mostly made of rock and iron, whereas the Sun is 98% helium and hydrogen—the two lightest gases known to man. Hence, it is quite conceivable that their respective weights are far more similar than currently believed.

In conclusion, I submit that the very existence of the Sirius system is strongly supportive of the TYCHOS model’s tenets. It provides, among other things, empirical evidence that a tiny celestial body can indeed be the binary companion of a large star. Moreover, it suggests that Sirius is like a ‘twin family’ to our own binary system, although we have no idea why this would be so. In any event, the fact that the Sirius system in so many ways parallels our own system certainly merits closer scrutiny.

6.5 Are the Sirius system and our solar system ‘double-double’ binary companions?

The idea that Sirius is the Sun’s binary companion star is nothing new. It has been proposed by several independent researchers in later decades (e.g., Karl-Heinz Homann of the Sirius Research Group, and Walter Cruttenden of the Binary Research Institute), mostly because Sirius does not appear to precess like all the other stars.

“The fact that Sirius seems to maintain its position relative to the position of the sun was a surprise to most scientists (aware of precession), when it was first noticed by the French scientific community following the Egyptian discoveries of Napoleon (and the Dendera Zodiac) in the early 1800’s.” Karl-Heinz Homann (1933 – 2008) - by Walter Cruttenden for BRI’s Sirius Research Group (opens in a new tab)

An intimate connection between Sirius and the Sun was first proposed by the eminent mathematician and egyptologist Schwaller de Lubicz. He made his deductions based on ancient Egyptian calendars that used the heliacal rising of Sirius as their new year date. In his book Sacred Science, he observed:

“For it is remarkable that owing to the precession of the equinoxes, on the one hand, and the movement of Sirius on the other, the position of the sun with respect to Sirius is displaced in the same direction, almost exactly to the same extent.” "Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy" by R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz (1982, Inner Traditions Reprint)

According to Jed Buchwald, it was none other than Tycho Brahe who first discovered this remarkable behavior of Sirius:

"Sirius remains about the same distance from the equinoxes — and so from the solstices - throughout these many centuries, despite precession’. In a personal correspondence with this author, Jed Buchwald also noted that ‘the effect was actually first discovered long ago by Tycho Brahe in fact, who informed the chronologer Scaliger about it.” "Sirius and precession of the solstice" (opens in a new tab) by Uwe Homann (2005)

Table 6.2 Heliacal rise dates for Sirius from Egypt. Over a period of 4000 years (from 3500 BC to 500 AD), Sirius ‘precessed’ by only about four days (from July 16.4 to July 20.3). Source: "The heliacal rise of Sirius and ancient Egyptian chronology" - by Bradley E. Schaefer for Journal for the History of Astronomy (opens in a new tab)

A good summary of the heated Sirius debate may be found on the Human Origin Project website in an article that is well worth reading in its entirety, were it only to show how important Sirius has been for many ancient civilizations in the making of accurate calendars.

"Ancient calendar systems could be evidence that our solar system is rotating around its binary partner Sirius." "The Science of Sirius Mythology & Our Two Sun Solar System" (opens in a new tab) by Human Origin Project

The existence of so-called ‘double-double’ stars (i.e., two binary systems revolving around each other in interstellar binary orbits) is beyond question: Many such ‘double-double’ stars have been documented, one example being the Epsilon Lyrae multiple star system.

Fig. 6.11 The Epsilon Lyrae ’double-double’ pair of binary stars revolve around each other. Source: Wikipedia

So could the Sirius pair possibly be revolving around the Sun/Mars pair? Or is this exceptional synchronicity between the motions of Sirius and our Sun just a ‘cosmic coincidence’, as mainstream astronomy has it? Before we move on, you will need to know that, according to the famous celestial mechanist Jean Meeus, Sirius may be expected to become our south pole star about 60 000 years from now. "Sirius is a future southern Pole Star" - Earthsky.org (opens in a new tab)

At the Constellation Guide website, we can also read the following:

"Sirius is slowly moving closer to Earth and will gradually increase in brightness over the next 60,000 years, before it starts to recede." "Sirius: the Dog star" - Constellation Guide (opens in a new tab)

Figure 6.12 is a largely speculative graphic based on these interesting data and expert predictions. Note that the relative orbital sizes in the graphic are arbitrary and that the graphic is just an exploratory exercise to probe and visualize the hypothesis that the two binary pairs (Sirius A/B and Sun/Mars) make up a ‘double-double’ system similar to that of Epsilon Lyrae.

Fig. 6.12 The hypothetical Sirius/Sun ‘double-double’ system. Note that by ‘ascend northeast’ and ‘descend southwest’ I refer to how an imaginary observer in space in the reader’s line of sight would describe the secular motions of the two binary systems

While Figure 6.12 is no more than a tentative interpretation of the observational and predictive data available today, if it were to be ultimately proven reasonably correct, it would help elucidate a number of long-debated issues and mysteries surrounding the brightest star in our skies:

  1. First of all, it would explain why our entire Solar System performs a clockwise precessional revolution around itself every 25344 years.

  2. It would also explain why Sirius does not appear to precess like all the other stars and has remained almost perfectly ‘aligned’ with our Sun for millennia.

  3. It would explain why various ancient civilizations used Sirius as a stable and reliable reference on which to base their calendars and even used its heliacal rising to mark their new year.

  4. It would corroborate the prediction of Jean Meeus that Sirius will become our south pole star in about 60 000 years.

  5. It may even shed some light on how the Dogon people knew about the existence of the tiny Sirius B, the invisible ‘Sirius C’ and its moon. As shown in Figure 6.11, the Sirius system would periodically pass much closer to Earth than it is today (i.e., whenever our two binary systems would transit at periastron), thus plausibly allowing its components to be seen with the naked eye.

  6. Furthermore, it may demystify the 7-degree axial tilts of the Sun and Mars, which are observed whenever the two are aligned towards the Sirius system, and its apparent 7-degree obliquity in relation to the celestial ecliptic.

  7. Last but not least, it would be consistent with the respective celestial motions of Sirius and our own system, in relation to our ecliptic.

All in all, the notion that the Sirius system is not only like a ‘twin family’ to our system but may also be connected with our system in a ‘double-double’ configuration, as posited by a number of modern-day independent researchers, cannot be dismissed off-hand. In any event, the simple fact that the Sun/Mars duo is proportionally near-identical to the Sirius A/B duo—a fact that has gone unnoticed to this day—should give the scientific community some serious food for thought. To continue to overlook this fact would be tantamount to ignoring the proverbial ‘elephant in the room’.