Chapter 8: The Sun's two moons - Mercury & Venus

In the TYCHOS - as briefly mentioned in Chapter 3 - the two ‘planets’ known as Mercury and Venus are, in actuality, the two moons of the Sun (much like Phobos and Deimos are the two moons of Mars). We shall now see how this can be demonstrated in a number of ways – and why this is not just a mundane matter of nomenclature. Unlike planets, moons do not have any lunar satellites of their own – and only moons are tidally locked to their hosts. To wit, a moon is a moon – and should not be called a ‘planet’.


Mercury was a grave matter of concern for astronomers in the last century, with its seemingly erratic behavior. Since the precession of its perihelion was in conflict with Newtonian predictions (thus threatening the long-established and vigorously-defended heliocentric model), Einstein pulled out of his hat some fancy equations that, basically, told us that we cannot trust our eyes.

As it turns out, Mercury’s behavior is not so erratic at all. Yes, its orbital plane is slightly inclined (as viewed from Earth) in relation to the Sun’s orbital plane, which causes its elevation vis-à-vis the Sun to oscillate quite a bit, yet it simply revolves around the Sun in lunar fashion. It rotates around its axis 2X faster than Venus and 3X slower than our Moon — and orbits the Sun once in 116.88 days (on average) — which is precisely 4X the time needed for our Moon to orbit once around Earth (29.22 days).

Now, these would all be rather odd “coincidences” under the Copernican model under which the orbital paths of Mercury and Earth’s Moon are entirely separate and independent of each other. Conversely, Mercury and our Moon’s many uncanny common traits would appear to make far more sense within the TYCHOS model, wherein Mercury revolves around the Sun, which in turn revolves around the Moon and Earth. We will see further on (in chapter 29) that our Moon and Mercury are, indeed, very much “intimately related”.

Is Mercury tidally or magnetically locked to the Sun in some way, just as our Moon is tidally locked to Earth? Until around the year 1965, every astronomer in the world would have told you that, yes, Mercury is “tidally locked” with the Sun (meaning that it always shows the same face to the Sun). That was the year that official NASA and Russian Space Agency sources announced with great fanfare that, according to their modern radar data, Mercury was not, after all, tidally locked with the Sun. This caused an uproar in the astronomy community and the question is still debated to this day. As I shall demonstrate, however, Mercury is most likely tidally locked with the Sun - and so is its “big sister” Venus (as can be empirically verified).

Mercury’s Short and Long ESI (Empiric Sidereal Interval)

Every 7 years, an Earthly observer will see Mercury realign six times with any given star at ca. 358-day intervals. However, the 7th time, it will “run late” by about 50 days and only line up again with the star in 408 days.

Why does this take place?

You guessed it. Just like Mars, Mercury also has two Empiric Sidereal Intervals: a “Short ESI” and a “Long ESI”.

In 14 years, Mercury completes 12 Short ESIs (of ca. 358 days) and two Long ESI (about 50 days longer). Below is a charted sample of a 14-year Mercury cycle (from July 6, 1998 to July 5, 2012) which I compiled with the NEAVE online Planetarium.

I chose – for a reason that should become clear – to start counting Mercury’s yearly revolutions at a given moment in time (just as it entered a Long ESI) as it transited in front of a given star which I used as reference. My celestial reference point was the star “Asellus Australis” in the Cancer constellation.

I found that Mercury lined up with my reference star on the following dates:

TOTAL : 5113 days

Average sidereal period of Mercury:

5113 / 14 ≈ 365.22 (or near-exactly 1 solar year).

As you can see, we have a pattern which repeats every 7 years – yielding a mean figure of Mercury’s sidereal period amounting to 365.22 days. In other words, if you know when and where to start computing Mercury’s celestial motions, you will find that Mercury is very much locked with the Sun’s yearly orbit around Earth. This is because Mercury is a moon of the Sun.

It is truly perplexing that, as far as I know, no one has noticed to this day the fact that Mercury’s sidereal periods can be averaged out (in spite of their irregularity) to nigh precisely 1 solar year. To be sure, this would constitute a most astounding “coincidental happenstance” under the Copernican model (wherein Earth and Mercury supposedly revolve at different speeds around the Sun).

You may now be asking yourself, “why does the TYCHOS model contend that Mercury’s mean synodic period amounts to 116.88 days rather than 115.88 days as most astronomy tables show?”

Here is a series of 14 intervals I have personally verified for Mercury’s synodic periods, over a 1636-day time span.

Note: a synodic period is the time interval between two successive conjunctions of any given celestial body with the Sun.

14 successive Mercury Synodic Periods

Source: NEAVE Planetarium

Average: 1636 / 14 ≈ 116.86 days

Hence, my 116.88-day value for Mercury’s true mean synodic period appears to be virtually on the mark.


It has been observed that Venus invariably presents the same face (to us earthly observers) each time it transits closest to Earth, every 584.4 days or so. Note that Venus is, of all our surrounding celestial objects, the one that passes closest to Earth.

As it is, this apparent “tidal” locking of Venus with Earth is, still today, a complete mystery to modern astronomy. Of course, according to the Copernican model, Earth travels at its own speed around a larger orbit than Venus, which in turn travels somewhat faster around its smaller orbit, yet Venus always appears to show the same face to us every time it passes closest to Earth (when Venus is at so-called inferior conjunction with the Sun). Well, and once again, this would be another “extraordinary coincidence” as viewed under the Copernican model.

“The periods of Venus’ rotation and of its orbit are synchronized such that it always presents the same face toward Earth when the two planets are at their closest approach. Whether this is a resonance effect or merely a coincidence is not known.” — Venus

“Every 584 days, Venus and Earth come to their point of closest approach. And every time this happens, Venus shows Earth the same face. Is there some force that makes Venus align itself with the Earth rather than the Sun, or is this just a coincidence?”

ABC Australia Television’s The Lab — Venus, 2017

“Whether this relationship arose by chance or is the result of some kind of tidal locking with Earth is unknown.”

Wikipedia entry on “Tidal locking”

“Tidal locking of Venus planet: […] so that the Venus planet shows always almost the same face to the Earth planet during each meeting, and shows that same face to both Earth and Sun during heliocentric opposition of Earth and Venus planets.”

Orbital resonance and Solar cycles by P.A. Semi (March 2009)

Everyone knows of this "puzzling" fact, but who can explain it? In the TYCHOS, this “puzzling” fact is considerably less mysterious. Venus, just like Mercury, is tidally locked with their 'host' (the Sun), quite simply because they are the Sun's moons. Similarly, our Moon is also tidally locked with its host (planet Earth). Simple as that.

Venus employs 584.4 days to circle the Sun once. This is somewhat longer than 1.5 solar years (365.25 X 1.5 = 547.875 days), the difference being:

584.4 – 547.875 = 36.525 days

This is 1/10th of 365.25 days and 1/16th of 584.4 days. Why have I noted this?

As we will see further on, for every 16 solar revolutions around Earth, Venus conjuncts with the Sun 10 times (as seen from Earth). Hence, every 8 years, Venus conjuncts with the Sun 5 times. Every 16 years Venus aligns with Mars (albeit at diametrically opposed sides of Earth) and every 32 years or so Venus and Mars re-conjunct, this time on the same side of Earth.

The entire system is not just composed of magnetically-locked micro systems but is itself a perfectly synchronized system with each component relating to the other.

Venus has an 8-year cycle (2922 days) during which Venus completes 5 synodic periods of 584.4 days each (or 1.6 years).

365.25 X 8 = 2922 days


584.4 X 5 = 2922 days

As you may note for later, this is one hundred 29.22-day periods — i.e.; our “TMSP”.

(The TMSP, our Moon’s True Mean Synodic Period of 29.22 days, will be explicated in Chapter 13).


Someone may object that the average Venus’ synodic period (as stated in official astronomy tables) is 583.9 days and not 584.4. I challenge the figure with the following evidence. Here follow a series of five successive synodic periods which I have personally verified perusing the NEAVE Planetarium.

The synodic cycle of a planet is the period it takes for it to realign with the Sun as seen from Earth. All planetary (and lunar) orbits are slightly off-center with respect to the body they revolve around (though please note this is entirely different from Kepler’s presumed elliptical orbits which do not exist as such in the TYCHOS. Do not confuse eccentricity with ellipticity).

These synodic period values fluctuate somewhat over time. We know that Venus realigns five times with the Sun in 8 years. We know that after 8 years, it roughly realigns with the Sun and the same star. Since we know these things, we should therefore obtain a more correct and significant mean synodic period by averaging five synodic periods of Venus.

Total: 2922 days
(or exactly 365.25 X 8)

Average length of Venus synodic period:

2922 / 5 = 584.4

The TYCHOS “584.4” value for the mean synodic period of Venus is therefore beyond dispute, since it can be empirically observed.

As current theory has it, Venus rotates around its axis in a clockwise fashion. This, however, is an unproven claim which originates (much like the supposedly unreliable and “non-tidally-locked Mercury” story) from purported radar surveys performed back in the 1960’s. Countless debates about this specific issue can be found in astronomy literature yet none has ever reached a definitive conclusion about this pesky matter.

In the TYCHOS, the reason why Venus appears to rotate around its axis in clockwise fashion is self-evident; since Venus employs more than one year (in fact, 1.6 solar years) to complete one rotation around its axis and to return to its perigee, Venus will appear (to an earthly, 'Copernican-minded' observer) to rotate clockwise — that is, in the opposite direction of its revolution around Earth!


The fact that our planets appear to periodically come to a halt and start moving ‘backwards’ for a few weeks or months - and then resume moving prograde (i.e. ‘forward’) again - is something that has baffled and mystified astronomers over the ages. It certainly is the most strikingly bizarre phenomenon affecting our planets’ motions – as viewed from Earth. However, and contrary to popular belief, these (irregular) retrograde motions have never been accounted for in a satisfactory manner (as we saw earlier with Mars’s retrograde intervals).

Parallax: the Race to Measure the Cosmos Publisher: W. H. Freeman (May 1, 2001)

The retrograde periods of Venus and Mercury (the Sun’s two moons) occur in a similar mode as those of Mars: they both produce teardrop-shaped loops as they transit in inferior conjunction with the Sun. It is a perfectly natural, dynamic geometric pattern (known in geometry as an epitrochoid) yet one that the human mind has, understandably, some difficulty to process and make sense of. My below ‘conceptual’ graphic, however, should help visualize how and why these “teardrop loops” occur.

As you can see, these retrograde motions are not merely an illusion of perspective – as Copernican astronomers will tell you. These apparent ‘backward motions’ (as observed from Earth) are part of the actual physical paths traced by the various celestial bodies of our Solar System. In the above fanciful picture, our cowboy’s torch will leave a teardrop-shaped smoke plume because the torch actually swirled around that patch of sky. The “teardrop loop” is simply a consequence of the horse’s forward motion coupled with the gyrating lasso’s circular motion.

As you watch the below animations, notice that Mercury and Venus only ever circle around the Sun (never reversing directions). Yet, as viewed from Earth, they will appear to periodically reverse direction against the starry background :

Watch animation of Mercury’s path around the Sun

Watch animation of Venus’s path around the Sun

The below screenshot from the Tychosium 3D simulator highlights a retrograde period of each of the Sun’s two moons.

The retrograde period of Mercury lasts for ca. 22.828 days on average — or 1/16th of a solar year.

The retrograde period of Venus lasts for ca. 45.656 days on average — or 1/8th of a solar year.

During the above periods, we see Mercury and Venus moving in the opposite direction of the Sun. Thereafter, they resume so-called “prograde” motion, moving West-to-East against the starry background - along with the Sun (of course, we always perceive the Sun as moving from East-to-West, but that is due to Earth’s daily West-to-East axial rotation).

The prograde period of Mercury lasts for ca. 94 days on average.

The prograde period of Venus lasts for ca. 538.7 days on average.

During these much longer prograde periods, we see Mercury and Venus moving in the same direction as the Sun.

Note that there is nothing elliptical about the motions of Venus and Mercury. They both revolve around the Sun in uniformly circular paths (and at constant speeds), even though their orbital axes are ‘eccentric’ to some degree (meaning that they are off-center in relation to their host - the Sun).

What needs to be understood about these various “teardrop-shaped” retrograde loops (performed by Venus, Mercury and Mars) is that their shapes and magnitudes are entirely dependent on the orbital sizes and speeds of these bodies as they revolve around the Sun. For instance, let us imagine for a moment that Mercury’s orbital speed were 8X slower than it is in reality. Well, here is a simulation of how Mercury would behave in relation to the Sun:

Watch animation here: Hypothetical “Mercury” orbiting approximately 8X slower

As you can see, if only Mercury were moving 8X slower… it would have no retrograde period! From Earth, we would just see Mercury as a moon revolving around the Sun – at times in front of it and at other times behind it – yet always moving in the same direction as its host. The peculiar retrograde motions of Mercury, Venus and Mars are thus a consequence of their relatively high orbital speeds while all of them simply revolve in uniform circular motion around the Sun and its annual path around the Earth.

In the next chapter, I shall illustrate the most striking aspect of the orbits of Venus and Mercury which definitively proves that they are the moons of the Sun. Namely, that their orbits are inclined along (i.e. co-planar with) the Sun's 'mysterious' axial tilt of 6° or 7°. Venus & Mercury are therefore not just the only two bodies of our Solar System which have no moons of their own; they are also the only two orbs that revolve around the Sun's equatorial ecliptic!