Foreword - Welcome to the TYCHOS
The TYCHOS is my revised model of our Solar System. Its basic configuration is based on the model conceived by Tycho Brahe - arguably the greatest observational astronomer of all times. After his untimely death in 1601 (at age 55), Tycho Brahe's favorite assistant Christen Longomontanus perfected his master's lifetime work in his Astronomia Danica (1622), a monumental treatise regarded as Tycho Brahe’s “testament”. The most striking feature of Tycho Brahe's Solar System was that the orbits of the Sun and Mars intersect - as they both 'dance' around Earth.
Tycho Brahe, however, apparently believed for most of his life that the Earth was completely immobile - and didn't even rotate around its axis. This unlikely notion was 'corrected' by Longomontanus in his Astronomia Danica - in which Earth was given a 24-hour rotation. The resulting model is known today as the "Semi-Tychonic model". My TYCHOS model is nothing but a natural evolution of Longomontanus' refined Semi-Tychonic model (which allowed a diurnal rotation of the Earth): the two are geometrically identical. Yet, the TYCHOS also proposes that Earth isn't stationary in space - but that it also moves around a circle and has an orbit of its own (just like all the celestial objects that we can see in our skies!).
The TYCHOS submits that the Sun and Mars are in fact a binary system, much like the vast majority (or most likely ALL) of our surrounding star systems. In the TYCHOS, the Earth orbits in the center of the Sun-Mars binary system, moving at the tranquil 'snail-pace' of 1 mph (or 1.6km/h). It completes one orbit in 25344 years - a period commonly known as “the precession of the equinoxes”. It is noted for pertinent comparison that the Sirius binary system is composed of two bodies (Sirius A and Sirius B) whose observed, highly unequal diameters are, proportionally-speaking, virtually identical to those of the Sun and Mars. In the TYCHOS, Earth is located at the barycenter of our Sun-Mars binary duo; it rotates around its axis once daily and slowly revolves around its circular Polaris-Vega-Polaris (PVP) orbit once every 25344 solar years. Polaris and Vega are the two most notable Northern stars under which the Earth transits in the course of what astronomers refer to as a "Great Year"(of approximately 25000 / 26000 solar years).
In the TYCHOS, the Sun and Mars are both escorted by a pair of moons (Mercury & Venus and Phobos & Deimos, respectively) which are all tidally locked to their respective hosts - much as our own Moon is tidally locked to Earth. Another common trait of these five moons is their exceptionally slow rotational speeds (around their axes). Most remarkably, our own Moon’s synodic period is shown to be the greatest common divisor of all of our system’s celestial bodies’ orbital periods. For instance, our Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars exhibit a 1 : 4 : 20 : 25 orbital resonance. In turn, the mean value of this quartet (i.e. 50/4 = 12.5) reflects the orbital ratio between our Moon and the Sun (1:12.5). This astounding pattern extends to our outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, which are respectively synced with our Moon’s orbital synodic period at a 1 : 150 : 375 : 1050 : 2062.5 : 3100 ratio. It should be noted that these exact, multiple orbital resonances only become apparent when taking into account the Earth’s 1.6km/h orbital motion, as posited by the TYCHOS model.
A series of longstanding riddles of astronomy are shown to be effectively resolved by the core principles of the TYCHOS model, such as: the 'failed' Michelson-Morley experiments; James Bradley’s 'aberration of light'; the “anomalous" (yet spurious) precession of Mercury’s perihelion - purportedly solved by Albert Einstein; the curious 8-shaped analemma (and our need for the 'Equation of Time'); why only Mercury and Venus have no moons - and why their orbits are co-planar with the Sun's 6° axial tilt; why both Mars and the Sun exhibit 79-year cycles; why some cosmic motions absurdly appear to both accelerate and decelerate; why all stars are observed to move around trochoidal paths, etc. - all find sensible and forthright answers when assessed within the TYCHOS paradigm (and its 1-mph-motion of Earth). Most significantly perhaps, the currently inexplicable so-called negative stellar parallax (exhibited by a good 25% of our stars) as well as the baffling amount of stars registering zero parallax (nearly 50%) can be shown to be natural - and wholly expected - corollaries of the TYCHOS model's fundamental tenets.
Conversely, it is demonstrated that the Copernican-Keplerian model cannot possibly represent the physical reality of our cosmos - as it violates some of the most basic and indisputable realities of Nature. Various examples are provided illustrating the numerous fallacies of the current, widely-accepted heliocentric configuration of our Solar System, in particular with regards to matters of optics, perspective, statistical probability - and sheer common sense. In light of this, the TYCHOS emerges as more than just an alternative interpretation of the vast body of observations gathered by this world's sharpest astronomers; it is today, I would dare say, the only existing model of our Solar System fully consistent with empirical experience, astronomical observations - and the most consolidated realities of our physical world.
It can hardly be denied that the Copernican model is marred by a number of problems which, objectively speaking, challenge the limits of our human senses and perceptions. In any case, there is nothing “intuitive” about the Copernican theory; it is safe to say that its widespread acceptance relies upon the faith conferred to the edicts of a few prominent luminaries who, about four centuries ago, decided for everyone of us that it was the definitive description of our Solar System. Since then, innumerable questions have been raised as to the validity of its foundational tenets - yet such criticism keeps being dismissed and held as nothing short of 'heretical' by the scientific establishment.
The Copernican model of our Solar System requires us to accept the following, surreal notions:
Earth orbits around the Sun at about 107226 km/h (i.e. 90X the Speed of Sound!) - while our entire Solar System itself moves at 800000 km/h. However, our current North star Polaris hardly appears to move at all (during the course of a man's lifetime) because it is "unimaginably" distant.
Surely, the time has come to question such extraordinary claims which, when considered objectively (as you enjoy a nice cup of tea in front of your fireplace), should make you wonder if there is perhaps a more sensible way to interpret our tranquil Solar System's observed motions. When something is “unimaginable”, there should be plenty of room for debate, no matter how 'long-established' any scientific theory might be.
THE COPERNICAN / KEPLERIAN "CAROUSEL"
Let us firstly remind ourselves of the Copernican model’s “elegant” geometric configuration, “starring” the Sun which would be positioned in the middle of a multi-lane, planetary merry-go-round - i.e.; a neat 'carousel' of planets revolving around the Sun in concentric, elliptical orbits. Here it is, as we are all familiar with – ever since our school days:
The heliocentric Copernican model undeniably appeals to our natural senses, what with its plain and orderly layout. There is a clear “middle”, and what’s more, there is an object right there in it – the brightest object in our skies: the Sun. The problem is that its geometric layout conflicts with empirical observation and therefore, it cannot possibly represent reality - as will be amply demonstrated in the following chapters; it is outright unphysical - as it violates (among other things) the most elementary laws of perspective.
“Kepler’s Laws are wonderful as a description of the motions of the planets. However, they provide no explanation of why the planets move in this way.”
— Kepler’s Laws and Newton’s Laws from a course at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts
It bears reminding that, since their initial acceptance by our world’s scientific community, the fundamental premises of the Copernican model have had to undergo a long series of profound critiques and revisions — all of which were somehow “patched up” with ad hoc arguments submitted by a clique of extremely influential fellows (e.g.; Newton, Galileo, Kepler, Einstein, Bradley, etc.). It is disconcerting that so much faith has been placed in those few individuals’ convictions. It is also most disturbing that, over the years, numerous findings by independent researchers (invalidating the Copernican theory) have been completely ignored by the worldwide scientific community. If astronomy considers itself as a science, it ought to be taking a good hard look in the mirror today.
As you may remember (if you are old enough), the old Copernican theory went like this:
“The sun is immobile, just like the stars – while all of our planets orbit around it in concentric circles.”
Whereas the modern Copernican theory sounds a lot like this:
“The Sun travels at 800000 km/h across our galaxy – along with all our Solar System 'members' – completing one orbit every 240 Million years.”
Both theories always were, and still remain, eminently questionable for a number of reasons:
The old Copernican theory contradicts the empirically-observable fact that not one of our visible stars are entirely immobile or motionless. It implied that our Sun would be the only immobile star of our entire visible cosmos, an absurd proposition that can safely be put to rest.
The current Copernican theory (which claims that the Sun needs circa 240 Million years to complete only an orbit) conflicts with the observable fact that the overwhelming majority of our visible stars appear to have much smaller local orbits of their own with relatively short periods. For instance, the orbital period of the Sirius A and B binary system is only 50.1 (solar) years; the binary system of Alpha Centauri A and B revolve around each other in only 79.9 years, while the Polaris A and B binary pair do so in just 29.6 years. Other recently-discovered binary systems exhibit even shorter “mutual orbital periods” of only a couple of years, months, weeks, days, or less. None of our visible stars (other than our own Sun) are observed to be moving around orbits in the range of hundreds of millions of years.
Moreover, our visible stars exhibit far slower apparent orbital velocities than 222 km/s (i.e.; 800000 km/h – the alarming orbital speed at which our system is claimed to revolve around our galaxy). For instance, our nearmost binary stars, Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B, exhibit orbital speeds (a.k.a. “proper motions”) of 21.4 km/s and 18.6 km/s. As it is, such speeds compare well with the estimated orbital speeds within our Solar System. To be sure, a star has never been observed to move ten times that fast. Even the fastest-moving star in our skies, the Barnard's star, is reckoned to be traveling at about 110 km/s, more than 50% slower than our Sun’s supposed 222 km/s-motion around the Milky Way!
Indeed, these foundational notions upheld by current theory truly stand out for their extraordinary claims. Give it a good thought: according to modern astronomy, our Sun would be the one and only star in our observable cosmic neighborhood to have a mega-gigantic “240-million-year” orbit. Indeed, our Sun would be the fastest-moving of all, travelling at a scorching 222 km/s and all the while “carrying” Earth (and all of our system’s planets and moons) along with it. And yet, we earthly observers can only detect minuscule stellar parallaxes from one year or decade to the next?
In the latest decades of astronomical research, a particular discovery stands out for its paradigm-changing nature: the vast majority of our visible stars have turned out to be interlocked in what are known as binary systems. In fact, it is quite possible that 100% of the stars in our skies are binary systems. In binary systems, a large star and a smaller celestial body (oftentimes too small and dim to be detected even with the largest telescopes) revolve in relatively short, mutually intersecting “local” orbits around their common barycenter. No binary systems have ever been 'observed' (i.e. "computed") to have orbital periods lasting anywhere near 240 million years.
I feel it is more reasonable to consider the possibility that our system is alike to other systems, rather than some sort of exception to the rule.
Paradoxically, the so-called Copernican Revolution was hailed as “the triumph of the scientific method over religious dogma”. Yet, when challenged by the likes of Tycho Brahe about the absurd distances and titanic sizes of the stars that the Copernican model’s tenets implied, the proponents of the same invoked the “omnipotence of God”.
“Tycho Brahe, the most prominent and accomplished astronomer of his era, made measurements of the apparent sizes of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. From these he showed that within a geocentric cosmos these bodies were of comparable sizes, with the Sun being the largest body and the Moon the smallest. He further showed that within a heliocentric cosmos, the stars had to be absurdly large — with the smallest star dwarfing even the Sun. […] Various Copernicans responded to this issue of observation and geometry by appealing to the power of God: They argued that giant stars were not absurd because even such giant objects were nothing compared to an infinite God, and that in fact the Copernican stars pointed out the power of God to humankind. Tycho rejected this argument.”
— Regarding how Tycho Brahe noted the Absurdity of the Copernican Theory regarding the Bigness of Stars, while the Copernicans appealed to God to answer that Absurdity by Christopher M. Graney (December 2011)
It is commonly thought (and taught) that the “Copernican Revolution marked the end of religious bigotry”. Well, nothing is further from the truth; if you had been questioning the Copernican model back then, you might have been called a person “of the vulgar sort” (since, according to Copernicans, you were therefore questioning God’s divine omnipotence!).
“Rather than give up their theory in the face of seemingly incontrovertible physical evidence, Copernicans were forced to appeal to divine omnipotence. ‘These things that vulgar sorts see as absurd at first glance are not easily charged with absurdity, for in fact divine Sapience and Majesty are far greater than they understand,’ wrote Copernican Christoph Rothmann in a letter to Tycho Brahe. ‘Grant the vastness of the Universe and the sizes of the stars to be as great as you like— these will still bear no proportion to the infinite Creator. It reckons that the greater the king, so much greater and larger the palace befitting his majesty. So how great a palace do you reckon is fitting to GOD?'”
— The Case Against Copernicus by Dennis Danielson and Christopher M. Graney (March 2014)
Indeed, it is a widespread popular myth that Johannes Kepler was the man who brought on the era of “rational scientific determinism” to the detriment of dogmatic religious belief. Again, nothing is further from the truth. As J. R. Voelkel points out in his The Composition of Kepler’s Astronomia Nova (2001) …
“He [Kepler] sought to redirect his religious aspirations into astronomy by arguing that the heliocentric system of the world made plain the glory of God in His creation of the world. Thus he made the establishment of the physical truth of heliocentrism a religious vocation.”
I will venture to say that the TYCHOS model may ideally satisfy both sides of the age-old heliocentric vs. geoheliocentric debate, since it proposes an ideal, “unifying” solution that may appeal to both parties (if they only would accept to join the discussion table). In the TYCHOS, the Earth is neither static or immobile; nor does it hurtle across space at hypersonic speeds. Nor is our planet located (“by the will of God”) smack in the middle of the entire universe. Instead, it is just located at (or near) the barycenter of our very own little binary system. All in all, the TYCHOS harmoniously combines elements from both of the two competing cosmological models - and even revives Plato’s ideal concept* of uniform circular motion: as we shall see, Kepler’s elliptical (and accelerating/ decelerating) orbital motions are just a spatial illusion caused by Earth's slow revolution around its own orbit.
*"In fact, for Plato, the most perfect motion would be uniform circular motion, motion in a circle at a constant rate of speed."